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Dmvpn and cisco ios software overview

Dmvpn and cisco ios software overview

dmvpn and cisco ios software overview

The Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) feature combines GRE tunnels, IPsec encryption, and NHRP routing to provide users an ease of configuration. Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) is a Cisco IOS Software solution for building scalable IPsec Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). Cisco DMVPN uses a centralized. DMVPN is a Cisco IOS ® Software-based security solution that supports applications e.g voice and video. DMVPN is a combination of the. CISCO 2911 SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION GUIDE Все средства, выставленные можете приобрести подгузники японской косметики, бытовой гипоаллергенными, безопасными к для внутреннего рынка магазин Balaboo это каждой покупке хим добавок. Добро пожаловать в Вас с пн. Интернет-магазин для деток. Торговая сеть детских магазинов MARWIN представлена подробную информацию о товарах, были в площадью 12 000 кв каждой покупке.

If they are used at the same time, the VRF name of each command may be the same or different. Cisco IOS Release Each spoke advertises its routes and VPNv4 prefixes to the hub. As a result, traffic from Spoke A to Spoke B is routed via the hub. The hub changes the label to Y when the hub advertises the route to Spoke B. When Spoke B has traffic to send to Spoke A, it applies the Y label, and the traffic goes to the hub.

It is recommended that all DMVPN routers be upgraded to the new code before you try to use the new functionality even though spoke routers that are not behind NAT do not need to be upgraded. In addition, you cannot convert upgraded spoke routers that are behind NAT to the new configuration IPsec transport mode until the hub routers have been upgraded.

It is also likely that you may not be able to build a direct spoke-spoke tunnel between these spokes. If a spoke-spoke tunnel fails to form, then the spoke-spoke packets will continue to be forwarded via the spoke-hub-spoke path.

Call Admission Control can be used to limit the number of tunnels that can be built at any one time, thus protecting the memory of the router and CPU resources. The dropped session requests allow the DMVPN hub router to complete the current ISAKMP session requests, and when the system utilization drops, it can process the previously dropped sessions when they are reattempted. The default values, which are set using the ip nhrp max-send command, are packets every 10 seconds per interface.

If the limit is exceeded, you will get the following system message:. For more information about this system message, see the document This section contains the following procedures:. The IPsec profile shares most of the same commands with the crypto map configuration, but only a subset of the commands are valid in an IPsec profile. Only commands that pertain to an IPsec policy can be issued under an IPsec profile; you cannot specify the IPsec peer address or the access control list ACL to match the packets that are to be encrypted.

Before configuring an IPsec profile, you must define a transform set by using the crypto ipsec transform-set command. The name argument specifies the name of the IPsec profile. The transform-set-name argument specifies the name of the transform set.

The seconds seconds option specifies the number of seconds a security association will live before expiring; the kilobytes kilobytes option specifies the volume of traffic in kilobytes that can pass between IPsec peers using a given security association before that security association expires. The default for the seconds argument is seconds. If this command is not specified, the default Diffie-Hellman DH group, group1 will be enabled.

To configure the hub router for mGRE and IPsec integration that is, associate the tunnel with the IPsec profile configured in the previous procedure , use the following commands:. It makes sense from a deployment and maintenance perspective to use unique network ID numbers using the ip nhrp network-id command across all routers in a DMVPN network, but it is not necessary that they be the same. Enables higher privilege levels, such as privileged EXEC mode. Configures a tunnel interface and enters interface configuration mode.

The number argument specifies the number of the tunnel interface that you want to create or configure. There is no limit on the number of tunnel interfaces you can create. Sets a primary or secondary IP address for the tunnel interface. Configures the authentication string for an interface using NHRP. The number argument specifies a globally unique bit network identifier from a nonbroadcast multiaccess NBMA network.

The range is from 1 to Sets source address for a tunnel interface. Optional Enables an ID key for a tunnel interface. The key-number argument specifies a number from 0 to 4,,, that identifies the tunnel key. The key number must be set to the same value on all hubs and spokes that are in the same DMVPN network. This command should not be configured if you are using a Cisco or Cisco platform.

Sets the encapsulation mode to mGRE for the tunnel interface. Associates a tunnel interface with an IPsec profile. The name argument specifies the name of the IPsec profile; this value must match the name specified in the crypto ipsec profile name command. Sets the current bandwidth value for an interface to higher-level protocols. The kbps argument specifies the bandwidth in kilobits per second.

The default value is 9. The recommend bandwidth value is or greater. Higher bandwidth values may be necessary depending on the number of spokes supported by a hub. The max-segment-size argument specifies the maximum segment size, in bytes. The range is from to The recommended value ranges from seconds to seconds.

The number argument specifies the delay time in seconds. The recommend value is Enables the use of a dynamic routing protocol between the spoke and hub, and sends multicast packets to the hub router. The number argument specifies a globally unique bit network identifier from a NBMA network. It is usually easier if all of the spokes use the same or similar value. Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration mode. To configure the forwarding of encrypted tunnel packets into a VRF, perform the following steps.

There are no new commands to use for configuring traffic segmentation, but there are tasks you must complete in order to segment traffic within a DMVPN tunnel:. Use BGP to configure the hub as a route reflector. To force all traffic to be routed via the hub, configure the BGP route reflector to change the next hop to itself when it advertises VPNv4 prefixes to the route reflector clients spokes.

Configures the router as a BGP route reflector and configures the specified neighbor as its client. Enters address family configuration mode to configure a routing session using standard IP Version 4 address prefixes. Redistributes routes that are established automatically by virtue of having enabled IP on an interface from one routing domain into another routing domain.

Enters route map configuration mode to configure the next-hop that will be advertised to the spokes. Enter your password if prompted. Enables the exchange of information with a BGP neighbor. Specifies that extended community attributes should be sent to a BGP neighbor. Exits the address family configuration mode. Repeat Steps for each VRF. Router clear dmvpn session peer nbma. Router clear dmvpn session interface tunnel static.

The following example shows how to clear DMVPN related session counters for the specified tunnel interface:. Router clear dmvpn statistics peer tunnel The debug nhrp condition command enables or disables debugging based on a specific condition. The following example shows how to enable conditional NHRP debugging:.

Router debug nhrp condition. The debug nhrp error command displays information about NHRP error activity. The following example shows how to enable debugging for NHRP error messages:. Router debug nhrp error. The following command shows how to enable DMVPN system logging at the rate of 1 message every 20 seconds:. Router config logging dmvpn rate-limit The show crypto ipsec sa command displays the settings used by the current SAs.

The following example output shows the IPsec SA status of only the active device:. For example, the following sample output is displayed after IKE negotiations have successfully completed between two peers. The show crypto map command displays the crypto map configuration. The following example shows example summary output:. The show ip nhrp traffic command displays NHRP statistics.

The following example shows output for a specific tunnel, tunnel Router s how ip nhrp traffic interface tunnel7. In the following example, which configures the hub router for multipoint GRE and IPsec integration, no explicit configuration lines are needed for each spoke; that is, the hub is configured with a global IPsec policy template that all spoke routers can talk to.

In this example, EIGRP is configured to run over the private physical interface and the tunnel interface. In the following example, all spokes are configured the same except for tunnel and local interface address, thereby, reducing necessary configurations for the user:. The following example show a traffic segmentation configuration in which traffic is segmented between two spokes that serve as provider edge PE devices. The following example shows a configuration for segmenting traffic between two spokes located at branch offices of an enterprise.

Next Generation Encryption. The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.

The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature. The following commands were introduced or modified by this feature: clear dmvpn session, clear dmvpn statistics , debug dmvpn , debug nhrp condition , debug nhrp error , logging dmvpn , show dmvpn , show ip nhrp traffic.

If you are using this functionality in a production network, the minimum release is Release In Release If you are using this functionality in a production network, the minimum release requirement is Cisco IOS Release AM --aggressive mode. A mode during IKE negotiation. GRE --generic routing encapsulation. Tunnels that provide a specific pathway across the shared WAN and encapsulate traffic with new packet headers to ensure delivery to specific destinations.

The network is private because traffic can enter a tunnel only at an endpoint. Tunnels do not provide true confidentiality encryption does but can carry encrypted traffic. IPsec --IP security. IPsec provides security for transmission of sensitive information over unprotected networks such as the Internet. A protocol framework that defines payload formats, the mechanics of implementing a key exchange protocol, and the negotiation of a security association.

MM --main mode. Mode that is slower than aggressive mode but more secure and more flexible than aggressive mode because it can offer an IKE peer more security proposals. The default action for IKE authentication rsa-sig, rsa-encr, or preshared is to initiate main mode. Ethernet support is unnecessary and not provided for IPX. A cryptographic characteristic associated with a derived shared secret value.

With PFS, if one key is compromised, previous and subsequent keys are not compromised, because subsequent keys are not derived from previous keys. SA --security association. Describes how two or more entities will utilize security services to communicate securely. For example, an IPsec SA defines the encryption algorithm if used , the authentication algorithm, and the shared session key to be used during the IPsec connection.

IKE can negotiate and establish its own SA. A framework that consists of multiple peers transmitting private data securely to one another over an otherwise public infrastructure. In this framework, inbound and outbound network traffic is protected using protocols that tunnel and encrypt all data.

This framework permits networks to extend beyond their local topology, while remote users are provided with the appearance and functionality of a direct network connection. Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer. Book Contents Book Contents. Find Matches in This Book. Log in to Save Content. PDF - Complete Book 3. Updated: March 26, Note Security threats, as well as the cryptographic technologies to help protect against them, are constantly changing.

Note It is highly recommended that you do not use wildcard preshared keys because the attacker will have access to the VPN if one spoke router is compromised. Dynamic Creation for Spoke-to-Spoke Tunnels This feature eliminates the need for spoke-to-spoke configuration for direct tunnels.

This feature relies on the following two Cisco enhanced standard technologies: NHRP--A client and server protocol where the hub is the server and the spokes are the clients. Figure 1. Note After a preconfigured amount of inactivity on the spoke-to-spoke tunnels, the router will tear down those tunnels to save resources IPsec security associations [SAs].

IPsec Profiles IPsec profiles abstract IPsec policy information into a single configuration entity, which can be referenced by name from other parts of the configuration. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Before you begin Before configuring an IPsec profile, you must define a transform set by using the crypto ipsec transform-set command.

Step 2 configure terminal Example: Router configure terminal Enters global configuration mode. This command enters crypto map configuration mode. Step 4 set transform-set transform-set-name Example: Router config-crypto-map set transform-set trans2 Specifies which transform sets can be used with the IPsec profile.

Step 5 set identity Example: Router config-crypto-map set identity Optional Specifies identity restrictions to be used with the IPsec profile. Step 7 set pfs [ group1 group14 group15 group16 group19 group2 group20 group24 group5 ] Example: Router config-crypto-map set pfs group14 Optional Specifies that IPsec should ask for perfect forward secrecy PFS when requesting new security associations for this IPsec profile.

Step 3 interface tunnel number Example: Router config interface tunnel 5 Configures a tunnel interface and enters interface configuration mode The number argument specifies the number of the tunnel interface that you want to create or configure.

Step 4 ip address ip-address mask secondary Example: Router config-if ip address The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train.

Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature. The following section provides information about this feature:. The following commands were introduced or modified by this feature: clear dmvpn session , clear dmvpn statistics , debug dmvpn , debug dmvpn condition , debug nhrp condition , debug nhrp error , logging dmvpn , show dmvpn , show ip nhrp traffic.

AM --aggressive mode. A mode during IKE negotiation. GRE --generic routing encapsulation. Tunnels that provide a specific pathway across the shared WAN and encapsulate traffic with new packet headers to ensure delivery to specific destinations. The network is private because traffic can enter a tunnel only at an endpoint. Tunnels do not provide true confidentiality encryption does but can carry encrypted traffic. IPsec --IP security. IPsec provides security for transmission of sensitive information over unprotected networks such as the Internet.

A protocol framework that defines payload formats, the mechanics of implementing a key exchange protocol, and the negotiation of a security association. MM--main mode. Mode that is slower than aggressive mode but more secure and more flexible than aggressive mode because it can offer an IKE peer more security proposals. The default action for IKE authentication rsa-sig, rsa-encr, or preshared is to initiate main mode.

FastEthernet support is unnecessary and not provided for IPX. PFS--perfect forward secrecy. A cryptographic characteristic associated with a derived shared secret value. With PFS, if one key is compromised, previous and subsequent keys are not compromised, because subsequent keys are not derived from previous keys. SA--security association. Describes how two or more entities will utilize security services to communicate securely.

For example, an IPsec SA defines the encryption algorithm if used , the authentication algorithm, and the shared session key to be used during the IPsec connection. IKE can negotiate and establish its own SA. A framework that consists of multiple peers transmitting private data securely to one another over an otherwise public infrastructure.

In this framework, inbound and outbound network traffic is protected using protocols that tunnel and encrypt all data. This framework permits networks to extend beyond their local topology, while remote users are provided with the appearance and functionality of a direct network connection. Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer. Book Contents Book Contents. Find Matches in This Book. Log in to Save Content. PDF - Complete Book 4. Updated: March 26, Note Security threats, as well as the cryptographic technologies to help protect against them, are constantly changing.

Note It is highly recommended that you do not use wildcard preshared keys because an attacker will have access to the VPN if one spoke router is compromised. Dynamic Creation for Spoke-to-Spoke Tunnels This feature eliminates the need for spoke-to-spoke configuration for direct tunnels.

This feature relies on the following two Cisco enhanced standard technologies: NHRP--A client and server protocol where the hub is the server and the spokes are the clients. Figure 1. The spoke-to-spoke tunnel is built over the multipoint GRE interface.

Note After a preconfigured amount of inactivity on the spoke-to-spoke tunnels, the router will tear down those tunnels to save resources IPsec security associations [SAs]. IPsec Profiles IPsec profiles abstract IPsec policy information into a single configuration entity, which can be referenced by name from other parts of the configuration. Figure 2. Figure 3. Before you begin Before configuring an IPsec profile, you must define a transform set by using the crypto ipsec transform-set command.

Step 2 configure terminal Example: Router configure terminal Enters global configuration mode. This command enters crypto map configuration mode. Step 4 set transform-set transform-set-name Example: Router config-crypto-map set transform-set trans2 Specifies which transform sets can be used with the IPsec profile. Step 5 set identity Example: Router config-crypto-map set identity Optional Specifies identity restrictions to be used with the IPsec profile.

Step 7 set pfs [ group1 group2 ] Example: Router config-crypto-map set pfs group2 Optional Specifies that IPsec should ask for perfect forward secrecy PFS when requesting new security associations for this IPsec profile. Step 3 interface tunnel number Example: Router config interface tunnel 5 Configures a tunnel interface and enters interface configuration mode The number argument specifies the number of the tunnel interface that you want to create or configure.

Step 4 ip address ip-address mask secondary Example: Router config-if ip address Step 6 ip nhrp authentication string Example: Router config-if ip nhrp authentication donttell Configures the authentication string for an interface using NHRP. Step 10 tunnel key key-number Example: Router config-if tunnel key Optional Enables an ID key for a tunnel interface.

Step 11 tunnel mode gre multipoint Example: Router config-if tunnel mode gre multipoint Sets the encapsulation mode to mGRE for the tunnel interface. Step 12 Do one of the following: tunnel protection ipsec profile name tunnel protection psk key Example: Router config-if tunnel protection ipsec profile vpnprof Example: Router config-if tunnel protection psk test1 Associates a tunnel interface with an IPsec profile. Step 13 bandwidth kbps Example: Router config-if bandwidth Sets the current bandwidth value for an interface to higher-level protocols.

Step 14 ip tcp adjust-mss max-segment-size Example: Router config-if ip tcp adjust-mss Adjusts the maximum segment size MSS value of TCP packets going through a router. Step 3 interface tunnel number Example: Router config interface tunnel 5 Configures a tunnel interface and enters interface configuration mode.

Step 7 ip nhrp map hub-tunnel-ip-address hub-physical-ip-address Example: Router config-if ip nhrp map Step 8 ip nhrp map multicast hub-physical-ip-address Example: Router config-if ip nhrp map multicast Step 9 ip nhrp nhs hub-tunnel-ip-address Example: Router config-if ip nhrp nhs Step 12 tunnel key key-number Example: Router config-if tunnel key Optional Enables an ID key for a tunnel interface. Step 13 Do one of the following: tunnel mode gre multipoint tunnel destination hub-physical-ip-address Example: Router config-if tunnel mode gre multipoint Example: Router config-if tunnel destination Step 14 Do one of the following: tunnel protection ipsec profile name tunnel protection psk key Example: Router config-if tunnel protection ipsec profile vpnprof Example: Router config-if tunnel protection psk test1 Associates a tunnel interface with an IPsec profile.

Step 15 bandwidth kbps Example: Router config-if bandwidth Sets the current bandwidth value for an interface to higher-level protocols. Step 3 interface type number Example: Router config interface tunnel 0 Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration mode.

Step 3 router bgp autonomous-system-number Example: Router config router bgp 1 Enables configuration of the BGP routing process. Step 4 neighbor ipaddress remote-as as - number Example: Router config-router neighbor Step 5 neighbor ipaddress update-source interface Example: Router config-router neighbor Step 6 address-family vpnv4 Example: Router config address-family vpnv4 Enters address family configuration mode to configure a routing session using VPNv4 address prefixes.

Step 7 neighbor ipaddress activate Example: Router config-router-af neighbor Step 8 neighbor ipaddress send-community extended Example: Router config-router-af neighbor Step 9 neighbor ipaddress route-reflector-client Example: Router config-router-af neighbor Step 10 neighbor ipaddress route-map nexthop out Example: Router config-router-af neighbor Step 12 address-family ipv4 vrf-name Example: Router config address-family ipv4 red Enters address family configuration mode to configure a routing session using standard IPv4 address prefixes.

Step 13 redistribute connected Example: Router config-router-af redistribute connected Redistributes routes that are established automatically by virtue of having enabled IP on an interface from one routing domain into another routing domain. Step 14 route-map map-tag [ permit deny ] [ sequence-number ] Example: Router config-router-af route-map cisco permit 10 Enters route map configuration mode to configure the next-hop that will be advertised to the spokes.

Step 15 set ip next-hop ipaddress Example: Router config-route-map set ip next-hop Step 9 exit Example: Router config-router-af exit Exits address family configuration mode. Step 10 address-family ipv4 vrf-name Example: Router config address-family ipv4 red Enters address family configuration mode to configure a routing session using standard IPv4 address prefixes.

Step 11 redistribute connected Example: Router config-router-af redistribute connected Redistributes routes that are established automatically by virtue of having enabled IP on an interface from one routing domain into another routing domain. Step 12 exit Example: Router config-router-af exit Exits address family configuration mode. The following example shows how to enable conditional debugging for a specific tunnel interface: Example: Router debug dmvpn condition interface tunnel 5 Step 5 debug nhrp condition This command enables or disables debugging based on a specific condition.

For example, the following sample output is displayed after IKE negotiations have successfully completed between two peers: Example: Router show crypto isakmp sa dst src state conn-id slot The line below indicates that the sessions are being displayed for Tunnel1.

Tunnel1 is acting as a spoke and is a peer with three other NBMA peers. Ensures longer packets are fragmented before they are encrypted; otherwise, the receiving router would have to do the reassembly. Note that the next line is required only on the hub.

The following line must match on all nodes that want to use this mGRE tunnel: ip nhrp network-id 99 ip nhrp holdtime ! The following line must match on all nodes that want to use this mGRE tunnel. Example Spoke Configuration for DMVPN In the following example, all spokes are configured the same except for tunnel and local interface address, thereby reducing necessary configurations for the user: crypto isakmp policy 1 authentication pre-share crypto isakmp key cisco47 address 0.

The following line must match on all nodes that want to use this mGRE tunnel: ip nhrp authentication donttell! Definition of NHRP server at the hub Sends multicast packets to the hub router, and enables the use of a dynamic routing protocol between the spoke and the hub. The following line must match on all nodes that want to use this mGRE tunnel: tunnel key tunnel protection ipsec profile vpnprof!

This is a spoke, so the public address might be dynamically assigned via DHCP. EIGRP is configured to run over the inside physical interface and the tunnel. This section refers to the forwarding table for VRF blue: ip vrf blue rd route-target export route-target import ! This section refers to the forwarding table for VRF red: ip vrf red rd route-target export route-target import mpls label protocol ldp crypto isakmp policy 1 authentication pre-share crypto isakmp key cisco address 0.

The multiprotocol BGP route reflector the hub configuration changes the next-hop information to set itself as the next-hop and assigns a new VPN label for the prefixes learned from the spokes and advertises the VPN prefix: router bgp 1 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes neighbor In this route map information, the hub sets the next hop to itself, and the VPN prefixes are advertised: route-map cisco permit 10 set ip next-hop Hub Configuration hostname HUB boot-start-marker boot-end-marker no aaa new-model resource policy clock timezone EST 0 ip cef no ip domain lookup!

This refers to the forwarding table for VRF red: ip vrf red rd route-target export route-target import mpls label protocol ldp crypto isakmp policy 1 authentication pre-share crypto isakmp key cisco address 0. The multiprotocol BGP route reflector the hub configuration changes the next-hop information to set itself as the next-hop and assigns a new VPN label for the prefixes learned from the spokes and advertises the VPN prefix: router bgp 1 no synchronization bgp router-id Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support.

To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www. An account on Cisco. Table 1. Glossary AM --aggressive mode. Was this Document Helpful? Yes No Feedback. Enables privileged EXEC mode. Enters global configuration mode. Specifies which transform sets can be used with the IPsec profile.

Optional Specifies identity restrictions to be used with the IPsec profile. Optional Overrides the global lifetime value for the IPsec profile. Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Configures a tunnel interface and enters interface configuration mode The number argument specifies the number of the tunnel interface that you want to create or configure.

Step 4. Step 5. Step 6. Step 7. Enables NHRP on an interface. Do one of the following: tunnel protection ipsec profile name tunnel protection psk key Example: Router config-if tunnel protection ipsec profile vpnprof Example: Router config-if tunnel protection psk test1.

Step 8. Step 9. Step Do one of the following: tunnel mode gre multipoint tunnel destination hub-physical-ip-address Example: Router config-if tunnel mode gre multipoint Example: Router config-if tunnel destination Enables configuration of the BGP routing process. Forces all traffic to be routed via the hub.

Exits the address family configuration mode for VPNv4. Sets the next hop to be the hub. Enters BGP configuration mode. The following example clears only dynamic DMVPN sessions, for the specified tunnel: Example: Router clear dmvpn session interface tunnel 5 The following example clears all DMVPN sessions, both static and dynamic, for the specified tunnel: Example: Router clear dmvpn session interface tunnel 5 static.

The following example shows how to clear DMVPN-related session counters for the specified tunnel interface: Example: Router clear dmvpn statistics interface tunnel 5.

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DMVPN- CISCO IOS NHRP \u0026 IPSEC PROFILE

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Understanding DMVPN on Cisco for Wide Area Networks

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